Cooking Temperatures (USDA)

Most bacteria are destroyed at cooking temperatures between 140 and 160°F. However, various meats cook best at various temperatures to reach ideal “doneness”, resulting in both safe and delicious meals. Following are the minimum INTERNAL temperatures food must reach to be considered safe to eat, regardless of how they are prepared.

Fresh ground beef, pork, veal: 160°F (72°C)

  • Beef, veal, lamb (as roasts, steaks and chops):
  • Medium rare: 145°F (63°C)
  • Medium: 160°F (72°C)
  • Well Done: 170°F (77°C)

Fresh Pork (as roasts, steaks and chops):

  • Medium: 160°F (72°C)
  • Well Done: 170°F (77°C)


  • Fresh (raw): 160°F (72°C)
  • Precooked (to reheat): 140°F (60°C)


  • Ground chicken or turkey: 165°F (74°C)
  • Whole chicken or turkey : 180°F (83°C)
  • Breasts or roasts : 170°F (77°C)
  • Thighs or wings : 180°F (83°C)
  • Stuffing: 165°F (74°C)
  • (cooked alone or in bird)

Fish: 145°F (33°C)
(cook until opaque and flakes easily with fork)
Egg dishes: 160°F (72°C)
Leftovers or casseroles: 165°F (74°C)